Indian Financial System – An Overview

You are fully aware that business units have to raise short-term as well as long-term funds to meet their working and fixed capital requirements from time to time. This necessitates not only the ready availability of such funds but also a transmission mechanism with the help of which the providers of funds (investors/ lenders) can interact with the borrowers/ users (business units) and transfer the funds to them as and when required. This aspect is taken care of by the financial markets which provide a place where or a system through which, the transfer of funds by investors/lenders to the business units is adequately facilitated. OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson, you will be able to: • explain the concept and functions of financial markets; • state the nature and importance of money market; • state the nature and types of capital market; • distinguish between capital market and money market; • explain the nature and functions of a stock exchange; • state the advantages of stock exchanges from the points of view of companies, investors and society as a whole; • state the limitations of stock exchanges; • explain the concept of speculation and distinguish it from investment; • outline the stock exchanges in India; and • describe the nature of regulation of stock exchanges in India and the role of SEBI. Contain 18.1 Financial market 18.2 Types of financial markets 18.3 Money market 18.3.1 Money market instruments 18.4 Capital market 18.4.1 Primary market 18.4.2 Secondary market 18.5 Distinction between primary market and secondary market. 18.6 Distinction between capital market and money market 18.7 Stock exchanges 18.7.1 Functions of a stock exchange 18.7.2 Advantages of stock exchanges 18.7.3 Limitations of stock exchanges 18.8 Speculation in stock exchanges 18.9 Stock exchanges in India 18.10 Regulations of stock exchanges 18.11 Role of SEBI

An Overview Banking Sectore

A bank is a financial institution that provides banking and other financial services to their customers. Banks are a subset of the financial services industry and play an important role in the global economies. They are a key player in stimulating economic growth. Banking is an important undertaking. The movement of capital handled by banks allows economies to grow and prosper. Businesses and governments need money to operate, and banks act as intermediaries between the suppliers of funds and users of funds.

Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India is the Central Bank of India, which means it is at the apex of the banking structure of the economy. It is one of the main governing body and regulatory body in India and helps the government in its role as a business facilitator. The RBI was first established on the 1st of April 1935 and nationalized in 1949. The governing of the RBI is done in accord to the RBI Act by the government. Its day to day affairs are take care of the Board of Directors who are chosen by the government.

Types of Customers & Mode of Operation

TYPE OF CUSTOMERS On the basis of banking nature, Customers can be classified as : 1. Depositors 2. Borrowers 3. TPP 4. NRIs 5. Walkin TYPE OF CUSTOMERS On the Basis of Society customer may be classified as: Gender Male Female Others Age Minor Major Senior Citizen Profession Salaried P&SE Business man Farmer Income Poor Rich HNI Manner Gentle Tough Short Tempered Occupation Employed Unemployed Student House wife.

Banker – Customer Relationship

BANK- CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP Banking relationship is a contract between the Bank & the Customer. Therefore, for establishing relationship with the customer, Bank has to ensure that the customer is legally capable of entering into a valid contract & he has applied to the Bank in the proper form (Indian Contract Act, 1872).

Negotiable Instruments

Negotiable Instruments are written contracts whose benefit could be passed on from its original holder to a new holder. In other words, negotiable instruments are documents which promise payment to the assignee (the person whom it is assigned to/given to) or a specified person. These instruments are transferable signed documents which promises to pay the bearer/holder the sum of money when demanded or at any time in the future.

Retail Banking Products

Typical retail banking services offered by banks include: Transactional accounts ,Checking accounts (American English) ,Current accounts (British English) ,Savings accounts ,Debit cards ,ATM cards ,Credit cards ,Traveler's cheques ,Mortgages ,Home equity loans ,Personal loans ,Certificates of deposit/Term deposits.

Foreign Exchange Business of Banks

Foreign Exchange (forex or FX) is the trading of one currency for another. For example, one can swap the U.S. dollar for the euro. Foreign exchange transactions can take place on the foreign exchange market, also known as the Forex Market. The forex market is the largest, most liquid market in the world, with trillions of dollars changing hands every day. There is no centralized location, rather the forex market is an electronic network of banks, brokers, institutions, and individual traders (mostly trading through brokers or banks).


Insurance is a contract, represented by a policy, in which an individual or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement against losses from an insurance company. The company pools clients' risks to make payments more affordable for the insured. Insurance policies are used to hedge against the risk of financial losses, both big and small, that may result from damage to the insured or her property, or from liability for damage or injury caused to a third party.

Security Analysis, Porfolio,Equity, Bond,Mutual Fund

Security analysis: fundamental analysis, technical analysis, efficient market hypothesis. The returns and risks from investing Markowitz portfolio theory, mean variance approach,portfolio selection-efficient portfolios, the single index model capital asset pricing model,arbitrage pricing theory.Equity analysis & valuation, balance sheet analysis equity valuation models, intrinsic value &market price, the p/e ratio & earnings multiplier approach, price/book value, price/ sales ratio,economic value added , overview of derivatives markets, option markets, option strategies and option valuation forward & future markets, strategies.Types of mutual funds schemes, structure, net asset value, risk and return, performance evaluation models Sharpe model, trey nor model, Jensen model, fame’s decomposition.

Recent Trends in Banking Regulation

1) Electronic Payment Services – E Cheques 2) Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) 3) Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) 4) Electronic Clearing Service (ECS) 5) Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) 6) Point of Sale Terminal 7) Tele Banking 8) Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

Marketing of Banking Services

CONCEPT OF BANK MARKETING Dentifying the most profitable markets now and in future;Assessing the present and future needs of customers; Setting business development goals and making plans to meet them; Managing the various services and promoting them to achieve the plans; Adapting to a changing environment in the market place.

Banking Regulations in India

The Indian banking sector is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India Act 1934 (RBI Act) and the Banking Regulation Act 1949 (BR Act). ... In addition, the Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999 (FEMA) regulates cross-border exchange transactions by Indian entities, including banks.

MIS & Technology in Banking

‘A Management Information System is a set of combined procedures that gathers and produces reliable, relevant, and properly organized data that supports the decision making process of an organization. To sum up, it is a group of processes through which data is obtained, sorted, and displayed in a useful way for decision-making purposes.’

International banking

An international bank is a financial entity that offers financial services, such as payment accounts and lending opportunities, to foreign clients. These foreign clients can be individuals and companies, though every international bank has its own policies outlining with whom they do business.

Bank Management

n general, bank management refers to the process of managing the Bank's statutory activity. Bank management is characterized by the specific object of management - financial relations connected with banking activities and other relations, also connected with implementation of management functions in banking.

Bank Lending Policies and Procedures

Making loans is the principal economic function of banks ◦To fund consumption and investment spending by businesses, individuals and units of government. How well a bank performs its lending function has a great deal to do with: ◦Economic health of the region◦Growth of new businesses◦Employment◦Promotion of economic vitality Bank loans conveys information regarding the credit quality of the borrower in the market place.

Micro Financing

Microfinance is defined as, financial services such as savings accounts, insurance funds and credit provided to poor and low income clients so as to help them increase their income, thereby improving their standard of living.

Risk Management

Risk management refers to the practice of identifying potential risks in advance, analyzing them and taking precautionary steps to reduce/curb the risk. Description: When an entity makes an investment decision, it exposes itself to a number of financial risks

Rural & Co-Operative Banking

Rural banking traditionally has serviced the financial needs of people living in remote areas of the United States. Unlike banks located in more populous urban areas, rural banks may have relatively small and specialized customer bases spread over a far greater geographical area. Cooperative banking is retail and commercial banking organized on a cooperative basis. Cooperative banking institutions take deposits and lend money in most parts of the world.


Digital banking is part of the broader context for the move to online banking, where banking services are delivered over the internet. The shift from traditional to digital banking has been gradual and remains ongoing, and is constituted by differing degrees of banking service digitization. Digital banking involves high levels of process automation and web-based services and may include APIs enabling cross-institutional service composition to deliver banking products and provide transactions. It provides the ability for users to access financial data through desktop, mobile and ATM services


A bank card is a payment card issued by a bank. Bank cards let customers access funds in checking or savings accounts or make purchases against a line of credit. ATM cards, debit cards, and credit cards are all considered types of bank card.

EMV technology

EMV is a payment method based upon a technical standard for smart payment cards and for payment terminals and automated teller machines which can accept them. EMV originally stood for "Europay, Mastercard, and Visa", the three companies which created the standard.


An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic banking outlet that allows customers to complete basic transactions without the aid of a branch representative or teller. Anyone with a credit card or debit card can access cash at most ATMs. ATMs are convenient, allowing consumers to perform quick self-service transactions such as deposits, cash withdrawals, bill payments, and transfers between accounts. Fees are commonly charged for cash withdrawals by the bank where the account is located, by the operator of the ATM, or by both. Some or all of these fees can be avoided by using an ATM operated directly by the bank that holds the account.


Cash Deposit Machine. Your dealings in cash are set to become a cakewalk. The Cash Deposit Machine (CDM) is a self-service terminal that lets you make deposits and payment transactions by cash. All successful transactions are immediately credited and customers will be issued an advice slip confirming the transaction.


The biggest difference between the two is their functionality. Internet Banking allows you to conduct online transactions through your PC or laptop and an internet connection. On the other hand, mobile banking can be done with or without internet. Many banks nowadays have their mobile apps for mobile banking. Although, you need to have an internet connection to use such mobile banking apps; banks also offer mobile banking through SMS. So, even if you have a very basic mobile and not a smartphone, you will still be able to use some features of mobile banking through SMS.


A point of sale terminal (POS terminal) is an electronic device used to process card payments at retail locations. A POS terminal generally does the following: Reads the information off a customer's credit or debit card. Checks whether the funds in a customer's bank account are sufficient.


Branchless banking is defined as the delivery of financial services outside conventional bank branches, often using agents and relying on information and communications technologies to transmit transaction details – typically card-reading point-of-sale (POS) terminals or mobile phones.

Virtual Banking

Virtual Banking (VB) is a strategy of distribution channels which are used to provide financial services and seeks to expand the concept of the traditional bank branch. This is done through the growth and development of technology.


A payment system is any system used to settle financial transactions through the transfer of monetary value. This includes the institutions, instruments, people, rules, procedures, standards, and technologies that make its exchange possible.
Types of Customers & Mode of Operation


ABSTRACT: For a bank it is advantageous to have different types of clients because, as will receive deposits and provide loans for both business and individuals. The difference between the interest charged by banks and they are paid gross banking profit, following recovery, by the bank, business development potential offered by customers, resulting in advantages for both bank and customer. Customer benefits can be considered: the safety of deposits held at banks; interest received for them; that the money held in bank accounts can be returned at any time upon request; transfers of money to them, instead of wearing them large sums of cash.


In 1950 occurred the so -called “customer orientation”, which meant focusing on requirements. Main concern was directed to identify customer needs and desires, such as companies come to meet them at the highest level of satisfaction of their needs. This change of perspective, belongs to the famous economist Philip Kotler, considered the father of modern marketing, which says that the new marketing must be “human activity directed towards meeting the needs and wants through exchange process in relation to market” (Kotler, 1986, pp. 4-5).

The concept argues that the key achievement by an organization, its objectives, is to determine the needs and desires clienţs, targeted and expected satisfaction in providing a better and more quickly than the competition.

The year 1950 is when introducing this concept in banking, with the tertiary sector development – sector of the Service. The marketing has come to learn many things about the client.

Client – a possible definition Customers are those who turn to bank services, but first you need to be known more closely. A customer is a person or entity receiving or benefiting from the bank, and who uses a company or banking institution to change currency. The customer is one who has a bank account.

“Customers are bank depositors, who entrust their money, banking facilities, for storage and fruiting, for which they receive interest and applicants or those who need temporary, some additional money for paying interest or commission” (Pîrvu, 2004, p. 31).

There is no established definition of “client”, but can be but few details about customers to draft a definition of customer, in terms of banks, as is the bi-univocal relationship, client-bank relationship.

“At the most general relationship as defined in dictionaries, is nothing but a link, a connection, a relationship between things, facts, ideas, processes, features, people, institutions, entities, whatever they may be.

Extrapolating the definition of the bank plan, typically client- bank relationship is a more special relationship than meets the eye, precisely because it is very sensitive. “In this dualism, almost inseparable, the customer can be defined by the following features: (Ionescu & Dimitriu, 2008, passim)

  • Is a person or legal entity that has a business relationship with the bank;
  • Turn to one of the units a bank to ask for operations;
  • Use one, some or all services offered by banks.

The relationship between customer and bank defined by law. This refers to the duty of the bank to take care of the customer and the banks responsibility to ensure that the system protects the technology used, the bank itself and its customers.

In essence, the relationship between bank and client is that relationship estab debtor and creditor. Customer may be creditor and debtor bank. Reverse this situation is recorded for the customer borrows money from the bank. Bank is not just a keeper of money, since it could use the funds for the purpose of business, but assumes the obligation to repay, on request, amount of deposits. Business potential offered by bank customers there for a viable business, banks need customers.

Different types and categories customers have different requirements, in accordance with their business or personal needs, offering great potential for development banking. Requirements and customer needs may change after a period of time, according to the new conditions existing in the economy and society.

The customer needs and offer advanced services, banks will keep their customers and will be able to offer new services. In a market economy is a long established fact that specialized banking products are more easily developed and used by existing customers than new ones. It is, shoulder important to identify different types of customers and their specific requirements. Companies will have different needs depending on the nature and volume of business. A small company, for example, may need a short term loan to cover the needs for services and manufacturing. Great investors may want to borrow money for investment so as to expand and diversify its business.

Needs of individuals who open their personal accounts may differ, depending on income level and lifestyle. Currently, this type of customers have a small share in Romania, but in perspective, the number of those who open their personal accounts should increase considerably.

“The market economy is a modern monetary economy (a money). Most trade is done by means money, money. All economic transactions are influenced in one way or another, money. Monetary Economics organic blends real economy, affecting a positive or negative, depending on the nature of prices and monetary measures”. (Heyne, 1991, p. 8.) “Thus, customers choose based on their needs and will choose a particular bank, depending on the services and benefits. This criterion takes you a while, the banking industry developed according to demand”. (Ionescu, 2009, Cap. I) Pressure from customers with different needs, the existence of services and by other financial institutions, will lead to changes and improvements in the banking system. While, due to the fact that banks are beginning to improve strategies, will be introduced new banking products and services in accordance with international banking practice.


Category of customers expressed groups of individuals with similar properties that are identified with those who do business with a bank. They are diverse and differ with different interests and needs. For a banker is particularly important: [7]

  • To recognize categories of customers that come in direct contact;
  • To identify the transactions necessary for each category;
  • Know the law, existing for different types of customers. Customers can be divided mainly in legally, into two categories:
  • Legal and

Legal entities may be, in turn, grouped by type of ownership, legal form of

organization and type of economic activity (business). For example, in Romania, most accounts are held by legal persons.

2.1. Corporate customer

Method of establishment of companies is regulated by law. “In terms of corporate bank accounts should be noted that each bank based on the law on banking has developed its own regulations (rules) to open and operate such accounts. These regulations are constantly improving to meet the demands of market economy development. Laws and regulations are published in our country in the Official Gazette. At the same time, it is important to know the internal regulations of banks”. (Ionescu, 2009, Cap. I)

It is also important for banks to know whether a person is a client company, the right of legally constituted, before doing business with him, each type of company is subject to certain regulations.

In Romania, there are several forms of organization of companies, defined by the Law no.31/1990.

Features companies as clients of the bank [7]

Are established in some specific forms that determine both the organization and their activity;

  • Have obtained, by law, the status of legal person;
  • In case of termination payments are subject to bankruptcy.

In their capacity as bank customers, these companies must meet requirements set by the bank, on the opening and operation of their bank accounts. Thus, companies who open bank accounts are asked a series of documents showing their form of legal organization, company name, type of work, the company’s capital, specimen signatures for persons to operate the account etc..

Types of companies that operate in Romania Legal persons may carry out business in a variety of forms, according to Law. 31/1990. (Monitorul Oficial, 1990, nr. 126-127) The law defines various types of companies that can be formed.

These companies will be in the following forms: (Monitorul Oficial, 1990, nr. 126-127)

  • SNC;
  • Limited partnerships;
  • Company limited by shares;
  • Joint stock companies;
  • LLC – Limited liability company.

Each of these must be established by law, each category of companies, in part, having to meet certain requirements. So there:

  1. a) SNC

The law defines this type of company as the company whose social obligations are guaranteed by its social heritage and unlimited joint and several liability of all partners.

Features of this type of company are:

  • Minimum number of associates is 2 – to be able to conclude the company;
  • Capital can be as small and consists of members contribution (cash and / or kind), divided into shares, which generally are not transferable (except in cases where the contract of association, agreed that can be assigned);
  • Liability of members for social obligations, shall be joint and unlimited;
  • All associations were considered as traders and usually they have given another mandate to manage, one for the other company;
  • Each pair can be declared bankrupt as a result of errors of them, as a consequence of the solidarity clause of the associates;
  • Their association gives them the opportunity to trade in partnership.

Name of such companies must have at least  one name and the words

associated CNS opening bank account on the company name. The signature list are designated as persons to operate the account.

  1. b) limited partnerships

The law defines this type of company as the company whose social obligations are guaranteed by social heritage and unlimited joint and several liability of general partners, limited partners liable only up to their intake

When setting up this type of society prevailing mutual trust between partners. The main feature of this type of company is that it has two categories of partners: general partners and limited partners.


  • Have the sole right to participate in company management;
  • Unlimited and severally liable for company obligations;
  • Their name is included in the name of the company;
  • Is the active element of society;
  • Have the quality merchants. partners are
  • Contribute equity, their liability limited to its level;
  • Not a trader, they can not intervene in trade of the company to third parties and banks;
  • Not allowed to participate in corporate governance only in special cases, by proxy, in this case responding, jointly and unlimited fortune, like the partnership;
  • Their names not be included in the company name;
  • Have the right to exercise acts of surveillance, to know the balance sheet, profit and loss account, commercial records etc.

It is not necessary that all partners are present name Bacar account and checks issued by a company.

Obligations of members:

  • Obligations are backed social heritage;
  • Comanditates respond unlimited joint and several, for the debts of the company, their present and future assets;
  • Partners are liable only up to their capital contribution. Thus, creditors may recover their debts not only of assets (properties) company, if they remain unpaid after all properties have been exhausted, they may, in legal terms, to take

possession of personal property belonging to one order.

  1. c) companies limited by shares

The law defines this type of society as society whose capital is divided into shares and social obligations are guaranteed with social patrimony and unlimited joint and several liability of general partners, limited partners are required only to pay actions.

“Not everyone wants to start a business have unlimited liability for datoririle made. Such people will be attracted to form a company limited by shares”. (Ionescu, 2009, Cap. I) The decisive element of such a company is capital, not individual members. Capital is divided into shares of equal value. This form of society has common features with limited partnerships and with the stock.

Associations are controlled and limited partners, indicating that in this case, partners are liable for the debts and obligations to society only within the subscribed capital in shares.

Capital is represented by shares. The contribution may be in cash and / or nature, but evaluated and taking the action.

Obligations, liabilities company limited by shares are secured by:

  • Assets of the company;
    • Joint and several unlimited liability limited partnership;
    • Partners are required only within the subscribed capital in shares.
  1. joint stock company

The law defines this type of society as society whose social obligations are guaranteed with social patrimony, shareholders are obliged only to pay their actions.

These companies are companies whose capital is divided into equal shares and marketable securities (including stock exchanges). This form of society is the typical company, it allows the accumulation of capital for development of large companies – industrial, commercial, banking. Capital contribution of officials may be in cash or kind, but was evaluated and taking the action.

Training requirements of joint stock companies are more stringent than the formation of other types of companies, established by law as a set of requirements for setting up and functioning.

Management companies stock is made by the Board of Directors and General Meeting of Shareholders.

  1. e) Limited Liability Company – LLC

The law defines this type of company as the company whose social obligations are guaranteed by social heritage, associations are required only to pay shares. In this case, the company’s capital is divided into shares which, under contract societies and as set forth in the statute, not negotiable on the stock exchanges. The members of this type of society are responsible for social liabilities only to the amounts deposited as shares and the assets of the company.

  1. f) individual comerciants (Monitorul Oficial, 1990, nr. 126-127)

Although the dominant role they have companies in the market economy, individual traders continue to show presence and be part of bank customers. From this point of view can be distinguished:

f.1) free tradesmen and professionals

They operate under an operating authorizations issued by local city and pay a flat tax on income, the financial department of belonging. They can open bank account as an individual, being bound by law I have a bank account “the company” as a legal entity.

f.2) family associations

Works under Decree no. 94/1990, (Monitorul Oficial, 1990, nr. 20) where opening a bank account is made in the same manner as any body.

Opening bank accounts for the activity of its specific ecomomic any agent should have opened a bank account through which to conduct operations of receipts and payments. In this respect, the company must provide the bank the following documents:

  • Request to open an account – if accounts currency, currency;
  • Articles of association / society operating status;
  • Final court decision;
  • Registration with Directorate General of Finance and State Financial Control;
  • Operating license / certificate of registration in the Trade Register;
  • Excerpt from the minutes of the General Assembly of Shareholders approving the nominal signature of persons authorized to right;
  • Sheet specimen signatures of persons authorized to order the operations account with the bank and company stamp;
  • Banking and stamp tax code;
  • Evidence of operating space.With the opening of accounts, bank cards issued company checks to bearer and / or limit the amount necessary for payment efecuarea current operations.

2.2. Individual clients

“A customer – an individual can be defined and described as a person holding a bank account for personal use. Such customers must comply with existing regulations and bankers must ensure that they do not open and use bank accounts for illegal purposes”. (Ionescu, 2009, Cap. I)

Individual customers still have a low share in overall banking. In Romania there are types of accounts specifically for this category of customers. For individuals, opening a bank account requires only:

  • Request for account opening
  • Presentation of an identity – identity, Romanian individuals or passport for foreign individuals.

Only individuals can open accounts in their names, with the possibility of account holders and empower others for signature in mind. In other countries, joint accounts – open two names – are common, for example, family, husband and wife can open an account with both names.

In Chapter individuals, the only consideration that banks should consider it is old people who want to change an account. It is envisaged that the very young may not fully know the consequences of making certain transactions with banks and therefore, such persons are protected to not be manipulated to benefit from them.

Also, it would be unwise for banks to engage in complex loan agreements with people too young. Even if the law is not explicit in this regard, banks may have their own regulations regarding the minimum age of clients. In Romania, as in many other countries, starting from the age of 18 years, individuals have full legal capacity and as such, can exercise their rights and assume obligations related to provision of legal relations which they conclude.

Conditions for maintaining Clients who have been admitted by the bank, following the fulfillment of criteria and enter into normal relations and current affairs will be followed always, the purpose of determining to what extent they maintain, want or reduce their performance original. Thus, during the course of business and various links with the bank, where customers can see the following possibilities: [7]

  1. Their customers maintain or increase their overall quality were tested by the acceptance criteria. These customers are recommended to be very good, with high performance in these conditions, the bank and its territorial units will continue to actively address.
  1. Customers change their performance in that record low profitability, assets are in a situation not too good – too much – to equity and long-term sources, it uses

fewer banking products and services, customers will be accepted indicators still passive and will be carefully monitored and supported to improve the overall situation is.

  1. Customers no longer meet the criteria for which have been accepted, not a profitable place, liquidity and are below the permissible level of debt, work and their products are received in the market and generally have a situation determined which promises to be improved in future. This category of customers will be transferred to competition, so that, through a suitable attitude, not harm normal relations recommended in general, but must be firm, the bank will not promote new business with companies in this category.

2.3. Types of customers with whom the bank is working frequently [7]

  • The driver of change – money provides the means to change reality in order to meet their own values and high standards;
  • Caring – money is the means by which to show care and concern for others, leading to dependence and customer awareness, that is important for the bank;
  • Competitor – money provides the means for overcoming self affirmation and competitors observed;
  • Creative artist – money supply prompting the medium of creative and artistic aspirations of satisfying emotional needs,
  • Innovator – money provides the means to explore new ideas and of finding new and better ways to do certain things;
  • Bureaucracy – money is the means of ensuring economic security, social and psychological;
  • Hedonistic – money provides the means of achieving personal goals and enjoy life;
  • Creator of empires – money provides the means of modeling the environment, controlling the destiny of others and establishing a dynasty;
  • Peace – money is the means to preserve the status quo, keeping people happy, accept that everything is subordinated to achieve what is best in the best of all possible worlds.
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